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Sampel 1 – Indonesia-Inggris

Kebijakan pembangunan perumahan menjadi instrumen pemerintah untuk melakukan intervensi pembangunan di daerah. Namun pembangunan rumah layak huni/RLH bisa dijadikan sebagai sarana pemberdayaan masyarakat. Implementasi kebijakan pembangunan RLH perlu mempertimbangkan pendekatan kombinasi, yaitu pendekatan atas-bawah (top-down) dan pendekatan bawah-atas (bottom-up), yang dikenal sebagai pendekatan hibrida. Penelitian ini bertujuan (1) menganalisis implementasi kebijakan pembangunan RLH dengan pendekatan hibrida yang berorientasi pada pemberdayaan masyarakat melalui partisipasi masyarakat kampung berbasis modal sosial dan (2) mengevaluasi keefektifan implementasi pembangunan RLH bagi masyarakat beserta faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhinya di Kabupaten Supiori. Penelitian ini dilakukan dengan metode kualitatif deskriptif di Kabupaten Supiori dengan fokus pada implementasi pembangunan RLH dengan pendekatan hibrida. Penelitian ini menggunakan dua jenis data: data primer yang diperoleh secara langsung dari lapangan menggunakan teknik wawancara mendalam, dan data sekunder yang diperoleh dari dokumen yang relevan berkaitan dengan topik penelitian. Data yang terkumpul dianalisis dengan teknik analisis kualitatif. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa kebijakan pembangunan RLH di Kabupaten Supiori berhasil dilaksanakan oleh Dinas Pemberdayaan Pemerintah dan Masyarakat Kampung (PMPK) (2012-2013). Namun, implementasi kebijakan ini kurang intensif selama 2014- 2016 akibat pergantian kepala daerah dari Bupati yang meninggal dunia kepada wakilnya pada tahun 2014. Implementasi kebijakan tersebut kurang berlanjut karena ada perubahan orientasi kepemimpinan kepala daerah dari orientasi pemberdayaan masyarakat ke pemenangan politik inkumben. Pembangunan RLH periode 2012-2013 dilaksanakan dengan pendekatan hibrida dengan alokasi Rp1.000.000.000 per kampung atau Rp50.000.000 per orang untuk 20 penerima di setiap kampung, kecuali Kampung Rayori dengan 40 penerima per tahun. Keberhasilan pelaksanaan pembangunan RLH periode 2012-2013 terlihat dari aktifnya peran pemerintah dalam pembangunan serta tingginya partisipasi masyarakat berbasis modal sosial dalam mendukung pelaksanaannya di lapangan. Partisipasi ini mengambil bentuk, yaitu: (1) sosialisasi program; (2) musyawarah kampung; (3) penyediaan material; (4) keterlibatan tenaga lokal; (5) manajemen konflik sosial; (6) gotong royong; (7) koordinasi lapangan dan pengawasan lang-sung; dan (8) dokumentasi dan pelaporan kegiatan. Implementasi pembangunan RLH ini cukup efektif, yang bisa dilihat dari terbangunnya RLH dan dirasakannya manfaat peningkatan penerima bantuan, peningkatan partisipasi masyarakat, dan pengembangan wilayah kompleks permukiman yang terhubung satu sama lain. Akan tetapi, implementasi pembangunan RLH periode 2014-2016 tidak semulus pembangunan sebelumnya. Kasus ini terjadi karena faktor pemerintah: (1) kurang lancarnya komunikasi pembangunan; (2) terbatasnya sumber daya pembangunan; (3) kuatnya disposisi pejabat dan pegawai; dan (4) struktur birokrasi ketat namun terfragmentasi akibat kepentingan yang berbeda-beda, maupun faktor masyarakat: (1) pengutamaan kerabat; (2) kurang tepatnya sasaran penerima bantuan; (3) ada penyimpangan prosedur penentuan penerima bantuan; (4) ketidakhadiran di acara sosialisasi Muskam; (5) kurangnya partisipasi aktif dalam penyelesaian RLH; dan (6) tidak langsung menempati setelah RLH terbangun.

Terjemahan Inggris

Housing development policy becomes a government’s instrument to make intervention in a regional development. However, adequate housing development can be used to empower the local community. The implementation of adequate development policy is necessary to consider a combined approach, i.e. top-down approach and bottom-up approach, well-known as a hybrid approach. This study aims at (1) analyzing the implementation of adequate house development policy with a hybrid approach oriented to community empowerment through community participation based on social capital as well as (2) evaluating effectiveness of the implementation of adequate house development as well as the factors influencing it in Supiori Regency. The study was conducted using a descriptive qualitative method in Supiori Regency with focus on the implementation of adequate house development using a hybrid approach. It used two types of data, i.e. primary data directly collected from the field using an in-depth interview technique, and secondary data obtained from various documents related to the research topic. The data collected were then analyzed using a qualitative analysis technique. Results of the study showed that the adequate house development policy in Supiori Regency was successfully implemented by the Sub-Department of Village Community and Government Empowerment (2012-2013), but the implementation of this policy was less intensive during 2014- 2016 due to succession of the head of local government from dead Regent to its vice in 2014. It cannot be continued because of change in leadership orientation of the head of local government from community empowerment to incumbent’s political winning. The adequate house development during 2012-2013 was implemented using a hybrid approach with an allocation of IDR1,000,000,000 per village or IDR50,000,000 per family for 20 heads of family in each village, except in Rayori Village with 40 heads of family a year. The successful implementation of adequate house development during 2012-2013 can be seen from the role actively played by local government in the house development and the high level of social capital-based community participation in support of the implementation in the field. This participation occurred in various forms such as: (1) program socialization; (2) village consultation; (3) provision of materials; (4) involvement of local labors; (5) the management of social conflicts; (6) mutual works; (7) field coordination and direct supervision; and (8) activity documentation and reporting. The implementation of adequate house development can be said as relatively effective if it was seen from the adequate houses built and the advantages due to the enhanced welfare among the people receiving the social aid fund, the increased community participation, and the regional development of local settlement complexes related to each other. However, the implementation of adequate house development during 2014-2016 was not as smooth as the previous house development. This was due to government factors such as: (1) less smooth local development communication; (2) limited development resources; (3) strong disposition of local officials and staff; and (4) tight but fragmented bureaucratic structure due to the different interests, as well as community factors such as: (1) the putting of the relatives first and the ignorance of people in needs for adequate house; (2) inappropriateness in targeting the people to receive the social aid fund; (3) deviance of standard operating procedures in the determination of receivers; (4) the absence of receivers in program socialization of the Village Consultation; (5) less active participation of the people receiving the social aid fund in the effort of completing the adequate house development; and (6) the people receiving the social aid fund did not directly use the adequate house after it was built.

Jasa Terjemahan

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